Tablet Computer Use and Applications Bloom

People are well aware about the huge excitement that comes with every release of an Apple product; and for many years, the Apple Company has dominated the gadget market. Yet these days are about to come to an end. With various options sprouting here and there, Apple should be up on its toes when it comes to their enemies’ moves.

Say Hello to Kindle Fire

Amazon has long led the digital media market with its line of books, movies and mp3s. It has been a leader in e-reading with their bestselling Kindle. Just recently, Amazon announced (with a bang) that they are launching the Kindle Fire. Now it’s time to take a closer look at the features that are said to compete with the Apple tablet.

One of the very first things that you would notice about Kindle Fire is its low price. Amazon is selling it for less than $200 and this is saying a lot given the features that come with this gadget. The user can definitely save a lot more when he chooses to buy Kindle Fire instead of its competitors which can easily come in at $500, retail.

Amazon has peppered this device with the most enhanced features. First, it comes with a Dual Core Processor so you are technically using an Apple iPad (at a much lower price).

With Kindle Fire, you can easily multi-task and download your favorite films, check your email, and listen to mp3 while you are busy surfing the Internet. The gadget also comes with enhanced streaming. Sync Kindle Fire to media and you can easily download e-books, songs and e-magazines.

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If the display screen matters to you, then the Kindle Fire is a sure winner on this field. Now, you can see the screen from various angles which makes it a lot easier to share a movie or a book with a friend or loved one. Don’t think that the image will be compromised because of its price because this device comes with over 16 million colors and 169 pixels for every inch. So, yup, you get the richest images on your tablet’s display.

Tablet Uses

Rather than spend hundreds more, why not settle for this gadget which comes with the same winning features but is moderately-priced? Pure logic dictates that you should settle for this device that provides more savings. With the reduced prices for tablets their use has enabled other tech products to bloom in unison, many restaurants now have staff take orders using tablets and the explosion of personal drones and quadcopters has also harnessed tablets as a mean of navigation.

Have you been wondering what’s up with the Apple Company these days? Being the leader in gadgetry isn’t easy since they have to be up on their toes at all times. As an Apple product user, you expect only the best once this company launches a new product to the market.

The third generation iPad was one of the highly anticipated Apple gadgets because of its upgrades. This new iPad has come a long way from its predecessors. Created with 2048” x 1536” retina display, this gadget is everything that consumers have been waiting for. While holding it right next to the iPad 2 won’t show any obvious difference at first, do not be fooled. This gadget has major features to boost namely:

  • 4G LTE support

  • Ability to become a WiFi spot

  • 5Megapixel, back-facing iSight Camera

  • Supports 1080p video playback

  • 1 GB RAM for apps

  • Voice dictation

If you are looking for the best tablet in the market, the iPad 3 is your best choice. The features are sure to be top of the line up until Apple knocks off its own creation with the release of iPad 4. Priced at $499, it may cost you a bit but the features are worth every hard-earned dollar.

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Battery Technology Leads The Way

Rechargeable batteries are having to keep up with the pace being set by the mobile comms revolution. “No chemical reaction is 100 per cent reversible,” says Tony Gozdz, chief scientist at US firm Telcordia Technologies. This may be true but rechargable lithium ion (Liion) batteries – as used in portable computers, mobile phones & electronic cigarettes – make a pretty good stab at it, although there can be complications (more info).

The accepted performance metric for rechargable batteries is that after 500 recharging cycles, the overall dip in performance is less than 20 per cent. “For each cycle this equates to a reversibility of 99.96 per cent – an incredibly small degree of degradation,” says Gozdz.Battery Tech

As head of battery R&D at Telcordia, formeriy Bellcore, improving battery technology is a topic close to Gozdz’s heart. What occupies him, and many other scientists at companies like Sony, Sanyo, Panasonic, Toshiba and Philips, are ways to squeeze Liion technology into ever slimmer packages. Liion is the predominant technology used in laptops. Being packed in cylindrical metal cases provides the necessary uniform pressure to hold the battery’s electrochemical materials together.

The drawback of the cylindrical shape is the space it takes up, especially when several are placed in series to achieve the 11 to 15V needed by notebooks. In turn, more than one bank is required to achieve an acceptable operating life. Overall a quarter of the overall volume is wasted. The development of fiat battery technology means there is more battery per unit volume. Refine the battery thickness and further possibilities arise.

Thomas & Betts, a licensee of Telcordia’s plastic Liion technology (Plion), is working on a large fiat battery to be placed behind a notebook’s screen. Placing it there not only results in a greater overall capacity, it also separates it from local hot-spots such as the PC’s microprocessor.

Mobile handsets, in contrast, embrace three battery types, each at a different stage in their evolution: nickel metal hydride (NiMH), Liion and Liion solid-polymer (lithium-polymer). Telcordia’s Plion is an example of the latter.

NiMH is the most mature and cheapest of the three. It also has the advantage of not needing any protection circuitry. For this reason NiMH AAA cells still claim the largest share of the European mobile phone market.

In Japan, the situation is different, says Daiichiro Eguchi, senior manager at Toshiba’s battery division. With Japan’s appetite for petite handsets – some 8mm thick and weighing as little as 55g – slimmer, lighter batteries are required. This is why battery makers are embracing Liion battery systems.imagebattery

What Liion offers is a battery thickness down to 4mm. “It is very difficult to make Liion batteries below 4mm,” said Eguchi.

Typically a metal can is used to bind the internal electrodes and separator material. Although the can’s 0.6mm wall thickness sounds insignificant, when the battery is only 4mm, both walls – each 0.6mm – account for a significant proportion of the battery’s volume. Enter lithium-polymer. It is based on the same electrochemical active components as Liion, where it differs is in the battery’s construction.

It promises lightweight batteries with a thickness down to 1mm, enclosed in a thin aluminium bag. “Like a coffee bag,” says Gozdz. The aluminium sheath prevents chemical solvent leaking out and water vapour getting in, which degrades the battery.

Panasonic manufactures lithium-polymer technologies for mobile phone and portable computers. Stephen Evangelou, Panasonic’s battery sales group’s technical manager, says the company has already produced lithium polymer in limited volumes for mobile handsets. Volume production is expected by April next year.

Toshiba is another company developing lithium polymer technology. According to Eguchi, Toshiba is not close to releasing product. “We will wait one or two years,” says Eguchi, who admits that Toshiba is still having problems achieving the performance required at low temperatures. Meanwhile Toshiba is launching an advanced Liion battery which while using a gel, has a different chemical composition to lithium-polymer.

Philips, while not a battery manufacturer, is also investigating lithium-polymer battery technology at its Research Laboratories in Eindhoven. “It’s something we need to know about,” explained Dr. Hans Feil, general manager of Philips Lithylene. What Philips Research has done is develop a lithium-polymer manufacturing process which it claims extends the battery’s capacity.

Dubbed lithylene, the process uses rivets instead of a can to give the structure rigidity. Micro-holes are introduced into the electrodes and separator. These are then filled with polymer, which, when set, binds together the battery’s materials.battery-620x448

A prototype battery has already been demonstrated by Philips Research. Feil claims the lithylene battery will deliver 800mAh, while competitor batteries with the same volume offer only 600mAh. The battery form factor for the latest mobile phones is 62 x 35 x 3.6mm. Toshiba’s advanced Liion battery, to be launched next February, will deliver 610mA while Panasonic’s lithium-polymer battery of the same dimension will offer 550mAh.

Telcordia’s Plion technology uses a “totally different” manufacturing process to that of Philips’. It binds the layers together without the need for rivets. Gozdz claims that this aids the manufacturing process. The company has licensed its Plion battery technology to several companies, four of which have already been announced.

Philips is also making its lithylene technology available for licensing. “We haven’t licensed The technology yet but we already have some very serious candidates,” said Feil. The challenge facing all the companies pursuing lithium polymer is to make the manufacturing process reliable. It is not a technology or electrochemical issue, but rather the optimisation of equipment for volume manufacturing and its debugging, says Gozdz.

As he points out: “It took seven to eight years and hundreds of millions of cells to get lithium ion to the point where it was right.”

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The Internet – How We Got Here

Posted on June 23, 2014 in Internet

The Internet is a network of computers that allows users at various locations to exchange information with one another. It consists of hundreds of millions of computers in over 100 countries. Not operated by any one business or government, although heavily censored by governments in countries such as China, it is a cooperative venture in which many companies, organizations, and individuals choose to participate by making their computers part of the network.

The Internet

The Internet’s beginnings are traceable to a project called ARPAnet that was begun in the 1960s by the U.S. Department of Defense. Government and academic researchers collaborated to develop computer-to-computer communications using a new technology called packet switching. Packet switching is a means for chopping data into a series of data packets or chunks–like breaking up a long letter into individual pages and sending each one separately. Each packet is like a letter with “to” and “from” address labels. Packets are passed along by computers in the network until they reach their destination and are reassembled. Each packet might take a different path through the network to its destination, bypassing areas that are damaged or temporarily in use for other transmissions.

Each computer connected to a TCP/IP network has a unique internet protocol (IP) address. This is a numerical address (such as 140.147.248.209) that other computers use to identify it. In 1984, domain names were introduced to make the network more user-friendly. A domain name (such as uscongress.gov) is the word equivalent of an IP address. A network device called a domain name server converts domain names to IP addresses. In 2010, computer network experts warned of a looming shortage of unique Internet Protocol (IP) addresses that could strangle Internet traffic in 2011. For companies in the United States, IP addresses are parceled out by the American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN). Robust Internet growth, especially with the numbers of attached devices (each requiring a unique IP address when online) means that by the end of 2010, less than 1 out 20 IP addresses remain available for assignment.

E-mail (electronic mail) was developed in the early 1970s and went on to become one of the most popular uses of the Internet. Other applications that are widely used include file transfer, real-time broadcasting and communications (including chat rooms), electronic bulletin boards, newsgroups, and game-playing. Each of these applications has a protocol or agreed-upon set of rules for data transfer that allows it to take place. The World Wide Web makes all of these applications accessible through one interface, which is provided by a Web browser such as Explorer or Safari.

In August 2010, sociology and communication researchers at both the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne and Cornell University released analysis of a study of online communications, specifically the creation and character of networks that create viral phenomena (posts, images, videos, or links that are disseminated quickly and broadly via Internet-based communication and social networking services). An objective of the study was to measure the relationship between online size and influence, as measured by the act of passing along information. The research study focused on behavior on the Twitter social network, an online communication and social networking site that allows an author (site host) to post online or send via short message service (SMS, or “text”), “tweets” or short messages of 140 characters or less that are then read, and possibly reposted (“retweeted”) by network of people who subscribe to that author’s site (“followers”).

Internet TV

The networking capability allows messages to be quickly transmitted throughout branching chain of individual Twitter networks. Predictive and data analysis algorithms measured and relied on follower attributes, such as the follower’s record of activity, and sampled 22 million link-containing messages or tweets over a 300-hour period during September 2009. The data gathered indicated that the character of the audience, rather than the size of an audience, is more closely correlated to the creation of online viral phenomena.

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